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Consciousness: An Introduction

Improved Index

The index in the Hodder edition was inadequate. So I have completely redone it for the OUP edition. The pagination is the same, so the index can be used for both. 

A

 

absorption 286, 356, 397, 399

access consciousness 24, 48, 269 (see also phenomenal consciousness)

accessibility 73

acetylcholine 332, 341

acupuncture 387–8

adaptation 144, 146

afterlife hypothesis 362

agency 118, 123–37, 124–5, 127, 134

Aglioti S. 42

agnosia 41

alcohol 14, 258, 316, 322, 328, 332

algorithm 33, 184

alien abduction 101, 304, 314–15, 348

alien hand 126

Alpert, R. 336, 367

alpha rhythm 398

altered state of consciousness 18, 298, 306, 321–37, 372, 385, 388, 396, 399
definition of 321–4, 345, 359

altruism 145–6

Alzheimer’s disease 259

American Sign Language 171, 177

amnesia 277, 258–60
anterograde 258
retrograde 258
source 273

amphetamine 311, 326–8

amygdala 278

anaesthesia 229–31, 276–7

anaesthetic 329–31

Analytical Engine 183, 203

anarchic hand 126

anatta (no-self) 95, 407, 411-3

angels 302, 365

animal
consciousness 11, 22, 104, 116, 167–79
learning 17
suffering 169–70, 177

anosagnosia 260

anoxia 365

anterior cingulate 125, 126, 232

anterior commissure 103, 235

anthropology 314–18

antidepressants 329

antipsychotics 329

apparition 291

archetype 314

Aristotle 114

arousal 350, 353, 393–4
in ASCs 325–6

artificial consciousness (AC) 182, 212

artificial intelligence (AI), 47, 185
good old fashioned (GOFAI) 185, 189, 191, 204, 218
rule and symbol 185
strong 186, 196, 204–6
weak 186

artificial neural network 187, 230

as if 182, 196, 317, 413-4
belief 384
consciousness 186, 198, 215, 217
creativity 203
intentionality 172, 205–6, 215, 384, 414
self 120, 413

Astonishing Hypothesis 73–4

astral body 223, 357

astral projection 348, 356–7, 396

atropine 317

attention 14-5, 51-6, 88–91, 245, 262, 324–5, 341, 388-9
as easy problem 20, 33
directed by consciousness 49, 51, 53-6
selective 56
spotlight of 48, 51-3, 71–2, 74, 116, 117
training of 16, 372, 376, 386, 388-91, 397, 403

audience
in Cartesian Theatre 65, 74–6, 98, 119–20, 191, 217
in Global Workspace 71–2

auditory cortex 268

auras 317–19

Austin, J.H. 399

autobiographical memory 72, 116–17, 172, 260, 306

autoganzfeld 298

automation 273

automatisation 44

automaton 11, 20, 37, 166, 169, 182–3, 264

autopoiesis 378

awakening 408, 410

ayahuasca 318, 333

 

B

Baars, B. (Profile 9, p. 116) 167, 273, 279, 379-80
and Global Workspace theory 48-9, 71-3, 117-8

Baba Ram Dass (Richard Alpert) 336

Babbage, C. 183, 203

Bach-y-Rita, P. 266

backwards referral 59-61, 131

Bagchi, B.K. 398

Balzac H. 332

barbiturates 311, 328

Barlow, H. 156–7

bat 22, 32, 379

Batchelor, S. 393–402

Baudelaire, C. 332

Beauchamp, C. 99–100

behaviourism 11, 16–18, 20, 68, 154, 275, 291

belief 47, 111, 172, 215, 383
as if 384
in paranormal 322, 356

belladonna 318

benign user illusion 76, 165

Bentall, R. 307

Berger, H. 228

Berkeley, G. 9, 96

Berry, D. 281

beta-carboline 318

bicameral mind 160

binding 74, 231, 244-8
dynamic 245
feature 53
static 245
visual 244-6

binding problem 243, 253

binocular rivalry 233, 253

biofeedback 44, 49

biological naturalism 198, 202

Bisiach, E. 261

Blake, W. 334

Blanke, O. 360–1

blind spot 81–4, 265

blindness 263–70, 309, 343

blindsight 156, 249, 263–70, 274, 279
super 266-270

blink 87–91, 258, 315

Block, N. 24, 269

body image 66, 117, 230, 325
distortion of 356, 359, 360

Boole, G. 184

bot 223

Bourne, A. 97–8

Braid, J. 344

brain damage 249, 251, 257–70

brain size 159, 164, 168, 173, 176

brain-mind space 341, 342

brainstem 117, 228, 237, 238, 252, 339, 390

brain-teasers 284

breath
use in meditation 387, 390–1, 393

Breazeal, C.L. 212–14

Brentano, F. 16

Broadbent, D. 281

Broca, P. 252

Broca’s area 125, 252

Brooks, R.A. (Profile 15, p. 212), 190–1, 202, 221

Bucke, R.M. 365

Buddha (Profile 27, p 402), 95, 401–4, 411, 412

Buddhism 361, 386, 388, 391, 397, 401–14
Tibetan 391, 402, 403
Zen 2, 209, 330, 366, 368, 388, 390, 392, 397–400    

bundle theory (see also ego theory) 94–6, 98, 102, 107, 109, 221, 412

 

C

caloric fluid 8

Calvin, W.H. 162, 380

Campbell, D.T. 141

candle flame 121, 410

cannabis 311, 322, 325, 331, 332–4

Cardiac arrest 362

Carington, W. 293

Carpenter, B. 45

Cartesian (see also Descartes)
coordinates 12
dualism 11, 12, 65, 98
materialism 65–8, 74-5, 82, 248, 249, 254, 264, 279
theatre 65–77, 109, 113, 119, 132, 213, 217, 240, 249, 261, 264, 270, 279, 344, 347

Castaneda, C. 316–19

Castiello, U. 39–40

causal paradox 37–8

Census of Hallucinations 308

central meaner 74, 120, 191, 213

centre of gravity 67, 114, 119, 384

centre of narrative gravity 75, 119, 120–1, 165, 219-20

cetaceans 175

C-fibres 237

chakra 387–8, 406

Chalmers, D. (Profile 2, p. 28), 7, 27–33, 150, 206, 216, 372-4, 380
and hard problem 19-21, 31-3, 377
and zombies 28-31, 150

change blindness 2, 87–8, 168, 191

chaos theory 188

Charcot, J. 344

Charles Bonnet syndrome 309

Charles II  85

Cheesman, J. 276

Cheney, D.L. 173–4

chess 183, 192–5, 283

chimpanzee 106, 125, 169–71, 177
culture in 175
social behaviour in 154, 157

Chinese room 186, 198, 204–6, 215–16, 219

chloroform 229, 329

Christianity 95, 148, 364, 366, 386, 391, 399

Churchland, P.S. (Profile 3, p. 36), 8, 30, 33, 34, 60, 159, 209, 374, 379-80

cingulate cortex 126, 232, 237

clairvoyance 292–3
travelling 356–7

Clark, A. 189, 374

Clarke, C.J.S. 33

Claxton, G. 136, 160, 282, 283, 406, 408

Cloud chamber 358

Club des Haschischins 332

cocaine 326–7

COG 66, 202, 212

Cohen, D. 18

coincidences 300–1

Coleridge, S.T. 272

collapse of the wave function 208, 300

collective unconscious 314

colour 8, 24, 26–8, 69, 244–9
in hallucinations 311–12, 330–1

phi phenomenon 62
pop out 56
qualia 27, 70, 84-5, 149, 156, 236, 266
vision 41, 26-28, 69-70, 73-4

coma 228

commentary-key 265, 268

computational functionalism 187–8, 196

computational theory of mind 185

Conan Doyle, A. 292

conditioning
classical 17, 258
operant 17

confabulation 104-5, 260, 345

connectionism 187, 202, 205, 219

conscie (contrasted with zombie) 149–50

conscious inessentialism 29–31, 148–50, 199, 238, 267, 375

consciousness
access v. phenomenal 24, 47–8, 73
as if 186, 198, 215, 217
co- 100
contents of (‘in’ consciousness) 43, 53, 65-6, 70-1, 75, 80, 191, 216, 236, 240, 255, 279, 284
core 172, 260
cosmic 365
definition of 2, 14, 198
dual 104
enactive theories of 254–5
extended 172, 260
evolution of 139, 147–65, 264
field of 396
function of 53, 72, 152–60, 246, 375
levels of 326
multiple 94
as mystery 8, 18, 144, 151, 209–10, 226–7, 232, 236
power of 36, 287, 289, 297, 303, 355
timing of consciousness 57–63, 128–32, 208–10, 378
unity of 208–9, 396

contents of consciousness 43, 53, 65-6, 70-1, 75, 80, 191, 216, 236, 240, 255, 279, 284

contrastive analysis 72, 116, 117, 273,

copy-me instruction 164

core consciousness 172, 260

corpus callosum 103, 126

correlation v. cause 227–8, 237, 278, 300, 349

Cotterill, R.M.J. 232, 254

Cowey, A. 269

Craik, K. 185

creativity 162–3, 188, 272–3, 284, 286, 333, 343, 392, 396
real v. as if 203

Crick, F. (Profile 16, p 232) 53, 63, 379-80
astonishing hypothesis 73
binding 33-4, 73-4, 246-8
dreaming 343
NCCs 81, 231-2, 236
qualia 34, 236

crisis apparition 348

Crook, J. 406, 407, 414

Crookes, W. 290

Csikszentmihalyi, M. 165, 283, 371

cutaneous rabbit 61, 62

Cytowic, R.E. 251

 

D

D’Aquili, E. 399

Damasio, A. (Profile 18, p 260), 116, 172, 231, 238–9, 260, 285

Daneman, M. 278

Darwin machine 162

Darwin, C. 11, 146, 166, 170, 175

Darwin, E. 140, 141, 218

Darwinism 140–6, 291
universal 144, 160–3

datura (Solanaceae Datura) 317

Davy, H. 329–30

Dawkins, M.S. (Profile 12, p. 170) 169

Dawkins, R. (Profile 10, p. 144) 34, 140, 155, 162–5

de Chardin, T. 143

de Mille, R. 318

De Quincey, T. 329

Deacon, T. 159

deafness 310

death 5, 319, 356–65, 368, 399

death-bed visions 361, 363

deautomatisation 390

deception 173

Dehaene, S. 278

Deikman, A.J. 390

Delage, Y. 348

denial
of blindness (Anton’s syndrome) 260–1
of paralysis 260–1

Dennett, D.C. (Profile 5, p. 66), 5, 8, 106, 115, 156, 168, 172, 176, 220, 266, 372, 374–5, 380, 382-4
AI 191, 196, 206, 213
hard problem 34-5
Cartesian theatre 65–77
Cartesian materialism 65-8, 82, 249
dreaming 346
dualism 14, 60, 65
free will 132
memes 120, 164–5
multiple drafts 63, 74-7, 255–6
qualia 25-6
self 118–22
time 62, 68, 131–2
tower of generate and test 161
zombies 30-1, 150–1

depersonalisation 117, 395

Depraz, N. 377

depression 327, 362, 365, 395, 396

derealisation 395

Descartes, R. (Profile 1, p. 12), 11, 37, 45, 68, 80, 114, 166, 182, 192, 194, 232, 246 (see also Cartesian)

design 139–41
by natural selection 140–1

determinism 123

dharma 402, 405

dice 300

Difference engine 183

digitisation 219

dimethoxytryptamine (DMT) 318, 332, 356

discourse 102, 120, 122

disinhibition 310, 365

displacement effect 293

dissociation 97-101, 230, 330, 355

dissociative anaesthetics 230, 330

dissociative identity disorder (DID) (see also multiple personality) 101

distant mental influence on living systems (DMILS) 298

Dobzhansky, T. 141

Dogen Zenji 388

dolphin 171, 175–6, 178, 343

Donald, M. 159

doorway test for aura vision 317, 319

dopamine 327, 329, 332

dorsal stream 41–3, 55, 60, 244, 246, 268–9

dream control 349

dreams 191, 306, 322, 326, 338–53
in the blind 267
ESP in 295-6, 301
evolution of 343
insight in 12, 348
in zombies 30–1
logic in 340
lucid 293, 322, 327, 338, 345, 347, 349–53, 356, 359
in multiple personality 100
reading in 85

driving 44, 70–6, 259, 356

drugs 306, 310, 315–19, 321–37, 382

dual aspect theory 12, 33

dual consciousness 104

dualism 9–14, 25, 27, 60, 156, 200, 237, 243–4, 300, 330, 357–8, 367–8, 372, 379-80, 411, 414
and ego theory 96, 107
Cartesian 11-2, 37
double 130
property 12, 202
substance 12–13, 45, 96

dualist interactionism 13, 45–6, 96, 129–30

dying brain hypothesis 364–5

dynamic core 161–2, 217, 251–4, 253–4, 342

 

E

easy problems 19, 20, 28, 32, 34, 240

Eccles, J.C. (Profile 17, p 244), 13, 46, 60, 96, 130, 132, 243–4

ecstasy 322

ectoplasm 290

Edelman, G.M. 161–2, 217, 251, 342, 380

ego 15, 94, 98, 102, 359, 363

ego theory (see also bundle theory) 95–6, 107–8, 109, 221

Einstein, A. 26, 362, 366

electroencephalogram (EEG) 228, 339, 364, 393, 398

eliminative materialism 25, 46, 159, 169, 226, 290–1, 324

embodied cognition 92, 188, 202, 378

emergence 189, 219, 378

emergent phenomenon 18, 58, 98, 159

emergent property 107, 154, 158, 189-90

emotion 45, 74, 162, 166, 177, 285, 383
in ASC 322, 325, 333, 340, 348, 361, 365
in decision making 125, 182, 260
in machines 213-4
in phenomenology 376
in split brain 104
Descartes and 37

empathogen 328

empathy 327

emptiness 412

enactive cognition 92, 189–91, 254, 378

encephalin 365

enchanted loom (brain as) 244

endorphin 365, 387

Engel, A. 247–8

Engler, J. 407

enlightenment 403, 406, 407, 413
experiences (kensho) 397

epilepsy 98, 103, 247, 252, 259, 310, 360, 396, 399

epiphenomenalism 11, 25, 31, 46–7, 148–50, 236, 342

epiphenomenon 17, 18, 72, 172, 342

epoché 16, 375–7

ether 329–30

event related potential (ERP) 278

evoked potential 59–61, 228

evolution 120, 139–79, 246
by natural selection 11
conscious 143, 410
directed 142–4
of consciousness 139, 147–65, 342
of dreams 342–3

evolutionary algorithm 141, 161–3, 188, 203, 286–7

evolutionary psychology 146, 152, 156

exceptional human experience (EHE) 354–5

existentialism 15

experimenter effect 288, 295
psi-mediated 295

explanatory gap 19–21, 226   

extrasensory perception (ESP) 2, 291–2, 295–8, 302, 358

eye movements 55, 91–2, 244, 339, 350–1

 

F

face area 238-9, 312

face recognition 106, 235, 278

facial expression 174, 249, 265

faith-healing 368

false awakening 327, 348

false memory 101, 305–6

fantasy proneness 286, 314–15

Faraday, M. 133, 135, 290

Farthing, W. 323, 395, 396

feature binding 53, 247

feature integration theory 245

Fechner, G. 15

Fenwick, P. (Profile 26, p 396), 363, 398, 399, 413

figment 70, 85

figure-ground segregation 247

filling-in 81–7, 115–16, 261

first person
methods 317–84
ontology 373
perspective 37, 48
practice 388
science 371–84
view 314, 374

Flanagan, O. 148, 150, 342, 380

Fletcher, P. 267

Flohr, H. 230

flow 283–4, 371

flying
in hypnagogic hallucinations 313–14
with drugs 317–18, 331
in dreams 347, 349–50, 359
Vedic 396–7

form constants 310–12, 313, 316

Four Noble Truths 401, 403, 404

fovea 55

Fox sisters 216

Fox, O. 348

Franklin, S. 216

fraud 98, 294–5, 297

free will 52, 54, 73, 104, 123–37, 160, 165, 188, 208, 411, 413, 414

Freud, S. 15, 233, 327, 343

Frith, C.D. 126

frog 168

frontal cortex 66, 116, 125, 235

frontal lobe 232, 258, 260

fugue 98, 117, 346

functional MRI (fMRI) 229, 234, 237, 265, 278, 312   

functionalism 9, 47–8, 149, 151, 159, 196, 198–9, 221, 264, 266–7, 324, 364
computational 187–8, 196

fusiform gyrus 235, 251

 

G

Gage, P. 126

Gallup, G.G. 170–2

Galton, F. 251

ganzfeld 297, 298–9, 302

gap, explanatory 18–21, 49, 226

gaps in experience 118–19, 121, 168, 261

Gardner, A. & B. 177

Gautama, S. (Buddha) 401, 402

Gazzaniga, M.S. 98–107, 117

Geller, U. 298

gene 144–7, 160

genotype 143

ghost in the machine 13, 116, 119, 156

ghosts 304, 306-7, 314

Gibson, J.J. 92

Gillett, G. 102

global synchrony 252

Global Workspace Theory (GWT) 48-9, 71–3, 116–17, 216, 222, 240, 245, 248, 253

God 5, 12, 140, 142, 148, 200, 355, 364, 366, 367, 391, 413

Gödel’s theorem 207

gods 316, 318

Good Friday experiment 367

good old fashioned artificial intelligence (GOFAI) 218

Goodale, M.A. 41–3, 60, 268, 270

gossip 157

Gould, S.J. 144, 145

grand illusion 78–92, 179, 217, 236, 411

great chain of being 142–3

Greeks 182

Green, C.E. 348

Greenfield, S. 153, 168

Gregory, R.L. 15, 85–130, 330

Grey Walter, W. 134, 190, 212

Greyson, B. 361, 362

 

H

Haggard, P. 130-1

Hakuin 392

Hall, J.A. 340

hallucination 160, 293, 306–19, 332, 345
collective 291
definition of 306-8
drug induced 327, 335–6
hypnagogic 307, 310, 313, 348
hypnopompic 313
perceptual release theory of 309
pseudo v true 307, 312

Hameroff, S.R. 33, 208–10, 214, 230

hand
alien  126
anarchic  126
phantom 238-9
rubber 240

hard problem 3, 18–21, 28, 63, 69, 210, 226–7, 240, 254, 264, 312, 374, 377, 404, 414
origin of term 19, 20
responses to 31-5

Harding, D.E. 408, 410

Hardy, A. 366

harmaline 318

Harnad, S. 300

Harré, R. 102

hashish 14, 331, 332

haunting 291

Hauser, M. 171

headless way 409

healing 391

Hearne, K. 350, 352

heaven 318, 336, 365, 392

health inessentialism 150–1

Hebb, D.O. 230, 247

Heidegger, M. 375

hell 318

hellish experience 361

Helmholz, H.L.F. von. 15, 52, 56

hemianopia 263

hemifield neglect 260–3

hemisphere 261
left 103–8, 399
right 103–8, 399

Hering, K.E.K. 52

Hero of Alexandria 182

heroin 329

heterophenomenology 375, 382–4

Heyes, C.M. 172

higher consciousness 143, 253

higher order perception theories (HOP) 47

higher order thought theories (HOT) 47, 230, 270

Hilgard, E.R. (Profile 23, p. 346), 101, 256, 322

Hinduism 95, 365, 386, 391

hippocampus 252, 259

Hobbes, T. 155

Hobson, J.A. 341–4, 346, 349

Hodgson, R. 97–8, 102

Hodgson, S. 37

Hoffman, A. 335

Hofstadter, D.R. 28, 207, 374, 409

Holmes, D.S. 392–4, 395

holographic reality 363

Holt, J. 269

homo habilis 157

homunculus 69, 115, 117, 191, 240, 279

Honorton, C. 298

Hubbard, B.M. 251

Hui Neng 404, 409

Hume, D. (Profile 7, p. 96) 64, 96, 98, 109, 114–15, 118, 290

Humphrey, N. (Profile 11, p. 156) 148, 151, 153–8, 173, 190, 240, 254, 342

Humphreys, C. 403, 404

Hurley, S. 254

Husserl, E. 15, 16, 375, 377, 378

Hut, P. 375, 377

Huxley, A. 334

Huxley, J. 143

Huxley, T.H. 11, 37, 142

Hyman, R. 298

hypnagogic hallucinations 307, 310, 313, 348

hypnopompic hallucinations 313

hypnosis 277, 344–5, 346
as ASC 322, 325, 344-5
and dissociation 97–100, 256
and paranormal 291, 293, 298
regression 354

hypnotisability 286, 308, 315, 356

hystories 101

 

I

Id 15

idealism 9, 25, 330

identity theory 9, 224, 237

ideo-motor action 123

Ikkyu 388

illusion 92, 385, 399, 405, 406, 410-4
agency as 124–5, 413
benign user 76
consciousness as 177, 411-2
definition of 78–9, 125, 132, 136-7, 306
free will as 123, 129–37, 165, 411, 413
grand 78–92, 179, 217, 236, 411   
of immanence 86
seeing through the 399, 403-6, 412
self as 76, 98, 116, 122, 165, 368, 402, 411-4
visual 15, 42, 78–9, 306

imagery 18, 68, 286, 324, 343
viewpoints in 360

imagination 314–17

imitation 162, 173–8, 192, 219–20

immortality 365, 368

immune system 333, 378

inattentional blindness 53, 88–90, 168

incubation 280, 284

incubus (plural incubi) 314–15

ineffability 354, 366–7, 370, 374, 382

inessentialism
conscious 29–31, 148–50, 199, 238, 267, 375
health 150–1

inferior temporal cortex (IT) 234

inner eye 47, 154, 156, 248

insight 343, 368, 377, 382, 385, 399, 400
in drug experiences 333, 336

intelligence 392
animal 169, 179
Machiavellian 176
in multiple personality 101
social 173

intention 16

intentional stance 172, 212, 383, 414

intentionality 16, 205–6, 212, 215, 383
as if 172, 205–6, 215, 384

internet 121–3

interpreter 98, 104, 106, 117

introspection 156–7, 370

introspectionism 16–18

intuition 284–5, 374, 378

intuition pump 25, 28

Islam 95, 148, 386

 

J

Jackendoff, R. 236, 380

Jackson, F. 27

Jackson, H. 309

James, W. (profile 4, p 52) 11, 14–20, 37, 157, 232, 242, 278
ASCs 321, 323, 329-30, 337
attention 51
evolution 152
gaps in experience 81, 261
mind-body problem 18-20, 32, 232
religious experience 330, 354, 366
self 97-8, 102, 104, 112–19
species present 52, 378
stream of consciousness 74, 80, 115, 118, 370
unity 232, 242, 330
will 123, 124, 132, 135

Jaynes, J. 153, 160

Jesus 365

jimson weed (Datura) 317

Johnson, S. 125

Joycean machine 165, 187

Judaism 386, 391

Jung, C. 310, 359

 

K

Kabat-Zinn, J. 407

Kammann, R. 296

Kant, I. 114

Kanwisher, N. 43, 236

karma 413

Kasparov, G. 193

Kemplen, W. von 183

kensho experience 397

Kepler, J. 80

ketamine 230–1, 330–1, 356

Kihlstrom, J.F. 277

Kirlian photography 319

Kismet 213–14

Klüver, H. 310

koan 392-3, 409

Koch, C. 33, 232, 236, 246–7, 379-80

Korsakoff’s syndrome 258

Kubla Khan 272

Kummer, H. 173

Kurzweil, R. 209, 221

 

L

LaBerge, S. 350–3

Lamarck, J.B. 142

Lamarckian inheritance 142–4

language 17, 159, 164, 166–7, 176–8, 204–6, 218–20, 249, 252–3, 399
evolution of 157
human 343
instinct 177

lateral geniculate nucleus 63, 244, 264–5

learning 18, 162, 238, 281 (see also conditioning)
procedural 259
social 175

Leary, T. 334, 367

Leibniz G. von 182

Lem, S. 200

Leonardo da Vinci 80

Levin, D.T. 89–91

Levine, J. 43

Levine, S. 373

levitation 290, 298, 302, 396

Lewicki, P. 281–3

Libet, B. 57, 58–63, 73, 127–32, 208, 252

life 7, 18, 84, 153

life after death 5, 111, 291, 302, 322, 355, 363

life force 159 (see also vital spirit)

limbic system 116, 365

Locke, J. 96, 114

Lodge, D. 121

logic
trance 345
in dreams 340–1

Logothetis, N.K. 234

Lovelace, A. 203

lucid dream 293, 322, 327, 338, 345, 347, 349–53, 356, 359

Lumer, E.D. 234

Luria, A.R. 250, 259

Lyell, C. 140

lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) 307, 311, 322, 332, 335–6, 356, 367

 

M

Machiavelli, N. 173

Machiavellian Hypothesis 173, 176
intelligence 176

Mack, A. 53, 88

MacKay, D. 98, 104–8, 116, 117, 232

Macphail, E.M. 145–9, 166–7, 238

magic difference 45, 60, 70–1, 80, 191, 232, 253, 264, 279, 347

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 229
functional (fMRI) 229, 234, 237, 265, 278, 312   

Maharishi effect 386, 396

Malthus, T. 140

mamillary bodies 258

mantra 391, 406

maps of states of consciousness 326–7, 334, 341–2

Marcel, A.J. 276

marijuana – see cannabis

Marks, D. 293, 296

Markwick, B. 294

Mary the colour scientist 26–8, 29, 149

Marzi, C.A. 269

masking 38, 58, 276, 278

materialisation 290

materialism 8–11, 27, 60, 119, 129, 355, 364, 367
eliminative 25, 46, 159, 169, 226, 290–1, 324

Maury, A. 313, 345

McCarthy, J. 214

McCartney, P. 272

McGinn, C. 32, 206, 215, 380

MDMA 327–8

Mead, G.H. 159

medial lemniscus 58–9

meditation 310, 312, 325, 326, 375, 378, 382, 385–500, 407
concentrative 389, 390–2
mindfulness 322, 352, 385–400, 404, 410, 411
open v closed 389
Transcendental 386, 391, 392, 396–7

mediumship 102, 132–3, 256, 289–91, 357

Meijer, P. 267

Meltzhoff, A.N. 174

meme 2, 101, 120, 144, 162–5, 176, 203, 211, 286, 366
religious 402

meme machine 163, 220, 286–7

memeplex 162, 176, 218–20, 223–41
definition of 162

memory 15, 18, 257–60, 343, 359
false 305–6
episodic 258–9, 330, 334
in ASC 311, 324–6
long-term 49, 258
semantic 330, 334
short-term 53, 73, 74, 246–7, 248, 252, 253, 258, 325, 333–4
transsaccadic 87–8

Mendel, G. 144

Mercier, C. 19

Merikle, P.M. (Profile 19, p 276) 276-9

Merleau-Ponty, M. 375

mescaline 310, 316–17, 332, 334–5, 356

Mesmerism 291

meta-analysis 298–300

metachoric experience 348

metal bending 298, 302

Metzinger, T. 243, 248, 251, 373

Metzner, R. 336

microconsciousnesses 248

microtubules 33, 36, 208–10, 217, 230

MILD (mnemonic induction of lucid dreaming) 351, 352

Miller, G.A. 118

Milner, A.D. 41–3, 60, 268, 270

mind 7
definition of 13
-stuff 14, 20, 152

mind-body problem 7, 19, 22, 244, 291

mindfulness 44, 322, 352, 385–400, 404, 410, 411  

Minksy, M. 190

mirror
self-recognition 170–2
in treatment of phantoms 239

Mitchison, G. 343

Mithen, S. 157–8

mnemonist 250

modules 147, 157

moment of awareness 40–1, 128

monism 9, 11, 96, 129, 330, 367–8

monoamine oxidase (MAO) 318

monoamine oxidase inhibitor 318, 329

Monroe, M. 82–3

Moody, R.A. 360–1

Moody, T.C. 29

Moore’s law 187

Morland, A.B. 268

morphine 329

Morse, M. 361, 364

motor cortex 134, 221, 229, 340

movement 244–9
perception of 268

movie-in-the-brain 80, 116, 231, 236

Muller-Lyer illusion 306

multiple consciousnesses 248

multiple drafts 63, 74-7, 255–6   

multiple personality 97–102, 120, 248, 346

multisensory integration 243, 249–51

Myers, F.W.H. 162, 291

myoclonic jerk 347

mysterianism 19, 32, 215, 226, 379

mystery
consciousness as 8, 18, 144, 151, 209–10, 226–7, 232, 236

mystical experience 330, 345, 354, 356, 360, 365–8, 366–8, 399

 

N

Nagel, T. 22–3, 32, 166, 373, 379-80

narcolepsy 314–15

narcotics 329

natural selection 11, 23, 140, 141, 144, 148, 150, 154, 158, 160–1

Neanderthals 157

near-death experience (NDE) 2, 256, 310, 331, 360–5, 368, 396, 410

necessary and sufficient conditions
for consciousness 228-9, 230, 236, 239, 240, 252
for dreaming 343

Neckar cube 233

neglect 260–3
hemifield 260–3
unilateral 261

neo-dissociation theory of hypnosis 101, 256, 341, 346

neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) 43, 74, 80-1, 129, 227–41, 231–6, 246, 342, 378
as easy problem 32-3

neural Darwinism 161

neural nets 219

neuronal adequacy 58–60, 73

neuronal group selection 161, 251

neuronal synchrony 247

neurophenomenology 377–80

Newberg, A. 399

Newton, I. 273

nicotinic acid 367

nirvana 403, 404, 413

nitrous oxide 229–30, 329

N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors 230

Noe, A. 91, 191, 240

noetic quality 366–7

noncomputable
function 206–7
truth 207

nonduality 389

nonlocality 33, 60, 210

noradrenaline 329, 332, 334, 340, 341

no-self (annatta)  95, 407, 411-3

 

O

O’Hara, K. 34

O’Regan, J.K. 91, 191, 240

observational theories of PK 298

observer 344–6

omega point 143

opiates 365

opium 14, 329

orangutan 170, 177

Ornstein, R.E. 190

Orwellian v. Stalinesque revision 61, 62

oscillations 33, 246–7
40-Hertz 74, 246, 247
gamma 246–7

ouija board 135–6

out-of-body experience 2, 256, 314, 322, 327, 331, 350, 355–62, 368, 382

 

P

Pahnke, W.N. 367

pain 12, 236–41, 329, 344–6, 373, 379, 410
anatomy of 125, 236-8, 365
in animals 166, 169, 239
function of 47, 148-9, 156-7
in meditation 387, 389, 410

Paley, W. 139–41

Palladino, E. 290

panadaptationism 145

panpsychism 11, 33, 153, 249

parallel processing 67, 74, 165, 187

paralysis 260
denial of 260-1
sleep 312, 327, 365

parapsychology 2, 289–303, 322, 350

Parfit, D. 95, 107–8, 109, 118, 121, 412

parietal cortex 55, 235, 245, 399

Parnia, S. 362

Pascal, B. 182

Pashler, H. 53

Paulignan, Y. 38–40

Pavlov, I. 17

Peirce, C.S. 274

Penfield, W. 360

Penrose, R. 33, 60, 207, 217, 230

Perky, C.W. 305

perplexity 1, 280, 393, 414

Persinger, M.A. 360

persistent vegetative state 228

personality 94, 98, 100

peyote 310, 316–17, 332, 334

phantom limbs 237–9

phenomenal
consciousness 24, 48, 73, 216, 248, 269-70
Holon 243, 251
stance 212

phenomenality 24

phenomenology 15, 16, 25, 33, 35, 76, 375
(see also neurophenomenology, heterophenomenology)

phenotype 143

phi phenomenon 62

phlogiston 159

physicalism 27

pineal gland 12–13, 45, 80, 232

Pinker, S. 32, 146–7, 178, 219, 373

Plato 64, 95, 361

pontifical neuron 66–7, 119, 232, 249

Ponzo illusion 306

pop-out 56, 83, 85-6, 251, 255

Popper, K.R. 13, 46, 60, 96, 244

positron emission tomography (PET) 228, 237, 265, 268, 278, 340

Povinelli, D.J. 172, 174

precognition 292–3, 300, 355

precognitive carousel 134

prefrontal cortex 46, 116, 125, 126, 235, 340

prelucid dream 348, 349

Premack, D. 173

premonition 295

premotor cortex 125

primary consciousness 252

priming 276, 278

Prince, M. 99–100, 102, 344

Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research Laboratory (PEAR) 299

prosody 213–14

psi 292–3, 295, 302

psi missing 295

psi-conducive state 297, 298

psilocybin 311, 317, 332, 334, 336, 356, 367

psychedelics 326, 331–7, 356

psychic phenomena 98, 288–303, 289, 291

psychical research 289–303, 350, 356, 358, 361

psychoactive drugs 326–37

psychoanalysis 15, 100, 260, 343, 359

psychokinesis (PK) 2, 292–3, 300, 358
micro-PK 298, 300
observational theories of 298
retro-PK 299

psychon 46

psychonaut 306

psychophysics 15, 16

psychotherapy 328, 406, 407

Puthoff, H. 292, 296

 

Q

Qi energy 387

quale (plural qualia) 25–6, 48, 116, 236, 264–7, 373-5, 383
in blindsight 264-7, 269
colour 27, 70, 84-5, 149, 156, 236, 266
definition of 25
and hard problem 34, 37, 264, 374
in machines 197
pain 238, 373
in zombies  28, 48, 149

quantum
coherence 33, 36, 208–10, 217, 230
consciousness 206–10
effects in parapsychology 298-300
theory 33, 60, 207, 300, 379, 396

Quine, W.V. 374

 

R

Radin, D.I. 289

Rahula, W. 413

Ramachandran, V.S. (Profile 6, p 84) 43, 83–6, 115–16, 236, 238–9, 251

random number generator (RNG) 293, 299, 300

randomisation 293–4

reaction time 40

readiness potential 127–3, 228

reading 85–6, 163, 333

reality discrimination 305–6

reality monitoring 305, 308

reductionism 20, 73, 109, 237, 379, 396

reentry 161–2, 251–3, 342

Reid, T. 96–7

relaxation 333, 356, 392–3
in meditation 325, 326, 386, 399
progressive 322

religion 162, 164, 402

religious experience 354, 360, 366, 370

remembered present 252

remote viewing 292–7

Rensink, R.A. 88, 91

replicator 144, 162–3

representational theories 47, 80-1, 87-92, 185, 230-1, 240

res cogitans 12, 182

res extensa 12

reticular formation 228, 339

retina 50, 70, 80, 82, 221, 264, 310

retro-PK 299

retro-selective theory of dreams 347

Revonsuo, A. 248, 342

Rhine, J.B. (profile 20, p 292) 291-4

Rhine, L.E. 291

Riddoch, G. 268

Ring, K. 360, 362–3

ritual 315–16, 326, 334, 397

Rizzolatti, G. 56

robot 48, 198–205, 212–16, 219

robotics
behaviour based 189, 205, 212
knowledge based 189
situated 189, 202

Rock, I. 88

Romanes, G. 175

Rosch, E. 403, 406

rubber hand 240

Ryle, G. 13, 66, 119

 

S

saccade 38, 55, 87–92, 265, 352

Sacks, O. 258–61

samsara 403, 406, 413

Sartre, J-P 86

scans 278, 322, 339, 378, 383

Schank, R. 204

schizophrenia 134, 307–8, 329

scotoma (plural scotomata) 85

Scutt, T. 34

séance 133, 289

Searle, J. (Profile 14, p. 198), 344, 373, 377, 380
animal consciousness 167-8
artificial intelligence 185, 190, 193, 214–16
biological naturalism 198, 202
Chinese room 204–7
machine consciousness 197-8, 202, 214–16
zombies 29

self 12, 95–137, 252–3, 363, 413
as if 120
autobiographical 116, 172, 260
consciousness 159, 167, 170–2, 176, 216
core 116, 260
empirical 112
illusion of 160, 165, 223, 365, 368, 402, 410, 413
in dreams 343, 345, 349, 353
loss of 259, 284, 319, 334, 336, 366, 391, 399, 407-8
pain and 238-40
proto- 116, 260
recognition 170–3
social 113
spiritual 113
subconscious 100
system (in GWT) 48, 72, 73, 117
transformation of 355, 365, 405-8, 414

selfish gene 144–5
replicator 165

selfplex 162, 165, 218, 220, 224

sensorimotor theory 91, 191, 240, 255, 267

sensory deprivation 309

sensory substitution 266–7, 269

separate reality 317

serial processing 165, 187

serotonin 327, 329, 332, 334, 340, 341

SESMETS 118–19

Seyfarth, R. 173–4

Shackleton, B. 293, 294

shaman 315–16

Shannon, C. 184

sheep-goat effect 295

Shelley, M. 183

Shepard, R.N. 68

Sherrington, C. 244

short-term memory 53, 73, 74, 246–7, 248, 252, 253, 258, 325, 333–4  

Showalter, E. 101

siddhis 396–7

Sidis, B. 275

Siegel, R.K. (Profile 21, p 306) 307, 309, 311, 316

signal detection theory 265, 275

Simons, D.J. 89–91

Singer, W. 247

single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) 399

Sizemore, C. 100

Skinner, B. F. 17

Slade, P.D. 307

sleep 338–53
borders of 313–15, 347, 398
cycle 209, 339
deprivation 308
microsleeps 398
REM 339–43
non-REM 339–43
paralysis 2, 312–15, 327, 365

snake 166, 178, 250, 262, 318

Soal, S.G. 293, 294

social skills 284

socio-biology 146

somatosensory
cortex 57–8, 237, 238-9
homunculus 238

soul 5, 74, 80, 160, 361, 365
Descartes 166, 232
and ego theory 98
and free will 132
James 113–14, 152
religious belief in 14, 32, 113–14, 148, 200, 355, 357–8

soundscapes 267

source amnesia 273

source monitoring 306

specious present 52, 378

Spence, S.A. 126

Spencer, H. 19

Sperry, R.W. 103, 104, 106–7, 129

spinal cord 58, 237, 238–9

spirit 5, 95, 98, 132–3, 135, 200, 289, 302, 315, 355, 357–8, 365

spiritual force 54, 124

spiritualism 102, 132, 289–91

spirituality 302, 362

split
brain 103–8, 249, 251
personality 98

spotlight of attention 48, 51, 73, 74, 117

spying 297

Stace, W.T. 366

Stalinesque v. Orwellian revision 61, 62

Stanford Research Institute 296

Stargate 296

state of consciousness (SoC) 326, 330, 370
discrete 326, 327, 342
(see also altered state of consciousness ASC)

state-specific science 322, 329

Steels, L. 219

Stevenson, R.L. 98

stimulants 326–7

Stoerig, P. 265, 269

Strawson, G. 118

stream of consciousness 3, 63, 118, 370, 383
as illusion 217, 255, 411
and self 104, 106, 108, 113, 115, 243
as show in CT 65,
in multiple drafts theory 75-6
in split brain 104, 106, 108,
origin of term 14, 52, 74, 344

stream of vision 79-80, 90, 92

stress 364, 386, 392–5

Stroop effect 276

subconscious self 100

subjective antedating 60

subjective referral 57-61

subjectivity 2, 19, 22–6, 32–5, 47, 73–7, 132, 159–60, 198, 248, 253

subliminal perception 273–8, 279, 283

subsumption architecture 190, 213

succubus (plural succubi) 314–15

suchness 334, 385

suffering 5, 201, 402, 403, 410
animal 169–70, 177

Sufism 386

suicide 362

super blindsight 266-70

superior colliculus 55–6, 63, 244, 250, 265

supplementary motor area (SMA) 125, 128

survival of death 102, 362–5

sutra 402

Suzuki, D.T. 366

Swiss Army knife 147, 157–8

symbol grounding 206

synaesthesia 250–6, 276, 310, 330, 333

synapse 13, 32, 186–8, 230–1, 244, 329

Szilard, L. 272

 

T

table turning 133, 289, 298

Tallon-Baudry, C. 247

Targ, R. 292, 296

Tart, C.T. (Profile 22, p 322), 323, 324, 326–7, 330, 333, 342, 344–5, 359

Teilhard de Chardin, P. 143

telekinesis 292, 300

telepathy 291–4, 300, 355

teletransporter 111, 117

temporal lobe 232, 315, 360–1, 365

thalamus 58, 70, 74, 117, 229, 237, 239, 246, 252, 258, 342

theatre 33, 48, 64–77, 116, 117
Cartesian 65–77, 109, 113, 119, 132, 213, 217, 240, 249, 261, 264, 270, 279, 344, 347

Theosophy 357

therapy 405–7

thermostat 214–16

theta rhythm 398

thinking 196

third-person
methods 371–84
perspective 49
science 371–84
view 314

Thompson, E. 403

thought experiments 26, 30, 108, 110–12, 182, 186, 221
(see also Mary, zombies, teletransporter)

thought transference 291, 296

threshold 275-9
objective v. subjective 276

tickling 130

time 61, 67, 355, 378
as illusory 406, 410

time perception 325, 333, 356

timing of consciousness 57–63, 128–32, 208–10, 378

Titchener illusion 42

Titchener, E. 16, 370

Tononi, G. 162, 217, 251, 342

tower of generate and test 161, 163

trance logic 345

tranquillisers 328–9

Transcendental Meditation (TM) 386, 391, 392, 396–7

transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) 130-1, 229, 315, 360

travelling clairvoyance 356–7

Treisman, A. 245

tunnel 310–13, 356, 360–1, 365

Turing, A. (Profile 13, p. 184) 192–6, 200–4, 207, 294
machine 184–5, 187,
test 192–8, 205–7, 217

Turk, mechanical 183, 192–4

Tyndall, J. 19

 

U

unconscious 15, 60, 228
collective 310
driving 44, 70–6
inference 15
muscular action (UMA) 133, 135
perception 274–86
processing 15, 60, 228

Underhill, E. (Profile 24, p 364), 367–8

unilateral neglect 261

unity
experience of 366-7
of consciousness 114-5, 162, 208-9, 242–56, 270, 330, 342, 396

as illusion 244, 254–61
of self 94, 98–107, 112–22, 208, 210, 243, 366–7
of universe 396

Universal Darwinism 144, 160–3

Utts, J. 297

 

V

van de Castle, R.L. 340

van Eeden, F. 349

van Lommel, P. 362

Varela, F.J. (Profile 25, p 378) 377–80, 402

Vedic flying 396–7

Velmans, M. 37, 48, 237, 380

ventral pathway 235

ventral stream 41–3, 60, 244, 268–9

veto 129–30

virtual representation 91

virus 101
email 164
religion as 144, 164

visual
binding 33, 73-4, 251
cortex 9, 24, 70, 234, 242, 244, 246–7, 263–5, 310
illusion 15, 42, 306

visuomotor control 38–43, 44, 246, 269, 270

vital spirit 7–8

vitalism 34, 201

volition 14, 45, 125-137, 413 (see also agency, free will, will)
and attention 54
as cause 37, 54
Descartes and 37
in dreams 341

von der Malsburg, C. 246

von Helmholtz, H. 15, 56

von Kempelen, W. 183

von Leibniz, G. 182

 

W

Wagstaff, G. 345

Walter, W. Grey 134, 190, 212

Warrington, E. 263

Watson, J. B. 16–18

Watt, J. 272, 286

wave function 300

Weber, E. 15

Wegner, D.M. (Profile 9, p. 134) 134-6

Weir-Mitchell, S. 238

Weiskrantz, L. 259, 262–9

Weismann, A. 143

Wenger, M. 398

Wernicke, C. 66–7, 252

West, M.A. 308

whales 171, 175

White, R.A. 354

Wigner, E. 208

Wilberforce, S. 142

will 43, 54, 124, 132-7, 345, 366
experience of 132
in multiple personality 102, 106
(see also free will)

Williams, G.C. 145–6

Wilson, E.O. 146

Wittgenstein, L. 154

Woodruff, G. 173

working memory 72, 116, 245, 330

world
as memory 91
as own model 191

worldwide web 223

Worsley, A. 350, 352

Wren-Lewis, J. 409, 410

Wundt, W.M. 16, 52, 61, 370

 

X

“X” 215–17

 

Y

Yamdoots 365

Yanomamö 315–16

yoga 44, 391, 396

 

Z

zazen 389, 390, 398

Zeki, S. 248–9

Zen 2, 209, 330, 366, 368, 388, 390, 392, 397–400

Zener, K. 292

zimbo 30–2, 150–1, 159

zombic hunch 374

zombie 28–31, 34, 48, 158, 199, 264, 267, 269, 375, 383
dorsal stream as 43
earth 29–31
impossibility of 31, 149–51
in NDE 362
partial 264
split brain as 106
twin 29, 150

Page created 11 August 2003

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